Table 2. Measures of Forearm Vascular Reactivity and Arterial Stiffness

VariableMean±SD or No. (%)Median (Min, Max)
aPWV indicates aortic pulse wave velocity; SS, shear stress; FVR, forearm vascular resistance; baD, brachial artery diameter; baFMD, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation; baNMD, brachial artery nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation. Continuous variables are presented as means±SD and median (minimum [Min], maximum [Max]), whereas categorical variables are presented as counts and percentages. *For NMD, n=356.
Pulse pressure, mm Hg47±1346 (16, 100)
aPWV, m/s9.27±2.688.60 (5.20, 23.90)
Systolic blood flow velocity, m/s
    Baseline0.64±0.160.62 (0.31, 1.25)
    Hyperemic1.26±0.271.25 (0.58, 2.25)
Mean blood flow velocity, m/s
    Baseline0.08±0.040.07 (0.01, 0.27)
    Hyperemic0.66±0.180.65 (0.23, 1.75)
Systolic SS, dynes/cm2
    Baseline50.66±17.3948.53 (18.07, 118.98)
    Hyperemic99.17±31.6596.99 (36.44, 226.25)
Mean SS, dynes/cm2
    Baseline6.24±3.765.43 (0.82, 28.61)
    Hyperemic51.80±18.8449.42 (16.41, 141.43)
FVR, resistance units
    Baseline2.45±1.872.10 (0.42, 28.07)
    Hyperemic0.25±0.110.23 (0.09, 0.82)
Baseline baD, mm3.71±0.693.62 (2.24, 5.69)
baFMD, %5.3±4.24.6 (−3.8, 27.5)
baNMD*, %19.0±7.418.7 (0.4, 56.4)