Table 3.

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult Offspring by Exposure to Any Maternal Hypertensive Disorder, Gestational Hypertension, or Preeclampsia

Model 1 (CI)*Model 2 (CI)Model 3 (CI)Model 4 (CI)§
Risk factors
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg2.6 (1.6 to 3.5)2.7 (1.7 to 3.6)2.2 (1.2 to 3.1)1.0 (0.1 to 2.0)
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg1.5 (0.7 to 2.2)1.5 (0.8 to 2.2)1.3 (0.6 to 2.0)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)
Body mass index, kg/m20.56 (0.18 to 0.93)0.70 (0.33 to 1.08)0.06 (−0.31 to 0.43)0.11 (−0.26 to 0.48)
Waist circumference, cm1.24 (0.35 to 2.14)1.57 (0.67 to 2.47)0.13 (−0.75 to 1.02)0.13 (−0.76 to 1.02)
Waist–hip ratio0.002 (−0.003 to 0.007)0.004 (−0.001 to 0.009)−0.001 (−0.006 to 0.004)−0.002 (−0.006 to 0.003)
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.01)−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.02)−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.02)
Non-HDL cholesterol, mmol/L0.08 (0.00 to 0.16)0.11 (0.03 to 0.19)0.06 (−0.02 to 0.14)0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13)
Triglycerides, mmol/L0.05 (0.00 to 0.11)0.06 (0.01 to 0.12)0.04 (−0.01 to 0.10)0.03 (−0.03 to 0.08)
C-reactive protein, mg/L0.08 (−0.05 to 0.22)0.10 (−0.03 to 0.25)0.03 (−0.10 to 0.16)0.03 (−0.10 to 0.17)
  • Values are shown as mean differences (95% CI) compared with offspring born after a normotensive pregnancy. The analysis includes 13 127 participants (with 16 584 observations) with available data on maternal cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study). BMI indicates body mass index; CI, confidence interval; and HDL, high-density lipoprotein.

  • * Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, maternal parity, and HUNT survey.

  • Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, maternal parity, HUNT survey, maternal smoking, and maternal education.

  • Model 3: adjusted for age, sex, maternal parity, HUNT survey, maternal smoking, maternal education, and maternal BMI.

  • § Model 4: adjusted for age, sex, maternal parity, HUNT survey, maternal smoking, maternal education, maternal BMI, maternal systolic blood pressure, and maternal diastolic blood pressure