Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Propensity Score-Matched Patients on and Not on β-Blockers*

Characteristicsβ-Blockers (−)β-Blockers (+)Standardized Difference, %P Value
Number25272527
Age, y62.9 (6.9)62.9 (7.0)0.70.80
Female sex, %36.836.60.20.93
Duration of diabetes mellitus, y11.0 (7.6)11.1 (7.9)2.30.42
History of heart disease, %37.236.80.90.77
History of coronary heart disease, %34.633.03.70.23
History of heart failure, %6.46.30.20.95
History of stroke, %7.77.31.60.59
Race and ethnicity, %
 White63.463.20.50.86
 Black19.419.20.50.85
 Hispanic6.77.22.10.43
 Others10.510.40.40.89
Educational attainment, %
 Less than high school15.315.40.20.93
 High school27.126.80.70.80
 Some college33.333.00.70.81
 College degree or higher24.324.81.30.64
Current smoking, %11.310.91.10.68
Body mass index, kg/m232.5 (5.4)32.6 (5.3)1.20.66
Medications, %
 Insulin36.837.51.40.62
 Sulfonylurea55.254.71.10.69
 Metformin65.364.71.10.70
 ARB/ACE-I72.573.01.00.70
 CCB12.713.00.80.76
 Thiazide31.931.70.50.85
 Statin72.773.21.30.63
 Aspirin61.561.90.70.79
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg136.6 (16.2)136.4 (17.8)1.60.73
HbA1c, %8.3 (1.0)8.3 (1.0)0.40.89
Cholesterol, mg/dL
 Low-density lipoprotein100.4 (32.0)99.9 (32.4)1.20.66
 High-density lipoprotein40.0 (9.8)40.1 (10.7)0.80.75
Triglyceride, mg/dL197.7 (124.8)193.5 (121.7)0.40.22
Estimated GFR, mL/min per 1.73 m2§88.6 (22.7)88.3 (22.7)1.50.59
Randomization arm
 Intensive glycemic therapy, %48.949.10.40.88
 Blood pressure trial, %44.043.70.60.82
  Intensive control, %22.622.30.60.82
 Lipid trial, %56.056.30.60.82
  Use of fibrate, %27.928.61.60.57
  • HbA1c: 8.3%=67 mmol/mol. ACE-I indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; CCB, calcium channel blockers; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; and HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin.

  • * Data are presented as number of participants, percent, or mean (standard deviation).

  • Heart disease included coronary heart disease and heart failure.

  • The estimated GFR was calculated using the following MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study equation: estimated GFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2) = 175×(serum creatinine in mg/dL)−1.154×(age in years) −0.203×(0.742 for female)×(1.212 for Black).

  • § Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilogram divided by the square of height in meters.

  • The ACCORD Blood Pressure trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) tested the effect of a target systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg compared with a target systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg on major cardiovascular events among high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • The ACCORD Lipid Therapy trial was designed to test the effect of a therapeutic strategy that uses a fibrate to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels and uses a statin for treatment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with the effect of only a statin for treatment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.