Table 2.

HRs for Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Death in Propensity Score-Matched Patients on β-Blockers Compared With Those Not on β-Blockers*

OutcomeEvent Rate per Year (Events no./Total no.)HR (95% CI) for β (+) (vs β [−])P Value
β-Blockers (−)β-Blockers (+)
All patients
 Cardiovascular events2.7% (250/2399)4.0% (349/2377)1.46 (1.24–1.72)<0.001
 All-cause death1.5% (152/2499)1.7% (164/2496)1.14 (0.92–1.42)0.23
 Cardiovascular death0.6% (63/2472)0.9% (86/2467)1.44 (1.04–2.00)0.02
Standard therapy group
 Cardiovascular events2.7% (125/1206)4.5% (192/1194)1.69 (1.35–2.13)<0.001
 All-cause death1.4% (70/1255)1.8% (86/1258)1.34 (0.97–1.83)0.07
 Cardiovascular death0.6% (31/1241)0.9% (41/1241)1.45 (0.90–2.31)0.11
Intensive therapy group
 Cardiovascular events2.9% (137/1163)3.5% (143/1146)1.04 (0.82–1.31)0.75
 All-cause death2.0% (97/1208)1.7% (78/1207)0.83 (0.61–1.11)0.21
 Cardiovascular death1.0% (46/1193)0.9% (40/1194).89 (0.58–1.35)0.58
Patients with CHD/HF
 Cardiovascular events4.4% (139/852)5.5% (174/851)1.27 (1.02–1.60)0.03
 All-cause death2.4% (88/898)2.3% (82/905)0.96 (0.71–1.30)0.80
 Cardiovascular death1.3% (47/890)1.3% (45/895)0.99 (0.67–1.49)0.96
Patients without CHD/HF
 Cardiovascular events2.1% (121/1516)3.0% (168/1492)1.45 (1.15–1.84)0.002
 All-cause death1.4% (88/1569)1.4% (82/1561)0.97 (0.72–1.31)0.85
 Cardiovascular death0.5% (35/1546)0.6% (35/1543)1.05 (0.66–1.68)0.84
  • β indicates β-blockers; CHD, coronary heart disease; CI, confidence interval; HF, heart failure; and HR, hazard ratio.

  • * Data are presented as number or HR (95% CI).

  • Because of some events and censored cases within 1 y, sample sizes were different between patients on and those not on β-blockers.